What are the pathways of apoptosis?
There are two major pathways leading to apoptosis in the mammalian system: an extrinsic pathway initiated by death receptors and an intrinsic pathway that occurs through the mitochondria (Figure 1). The extrinsic pathway depends on binding of appropriate exogenous mediators to death receptors at the cell surface.
How does camptothecin cause apoptosis?
Camptothecin caused apoptosis in SiHa cells by inducing mitochondrial membrane permeability changes that lead to the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, decreased Bcl-2 levels, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, formation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of GSH.
How do you dissolve camptothecin?
Camptothecin is sparingly soluble in aqueous buffers. For maximum solubility in aqueous buffers, camptothecin should first be dissolved in DMSO and then diluted with the aqueous buffer of choice. Camptothecin has a solubility of approximately 0.25 mg/ml in a 1:3 solution of DMSO:PBS (pH 7.2) using this method.
What are the 4 stages of apoptosis?
To illustrate these apoptosis events and how to detect them, Bio-Rad has created a pathway which divides apoptosis into four stages: induction, early phase, mid phase and late phase (Figure 1).
How is PDCD5 related to multiple myeloma?
Data show that lower serum levels of programmed cell death protein 5 (PDCD5) protein were identified in the gastric cancer patients that with CD133 (+) fraction more than 1.6 %. Endogenous PDCD5 overexpression accelerated multiple myeloma cell apoptosis under dexamethasone treatment.
What is the function of PDCD5 in carcinoma?
The expression of PDCD5 and its protein were shown to be reduced in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The functional importance of PDCD5 as a regulating agent in cell apoptosis suggests that it may play a key role in tumour pathogenesis and development.
How does the extracellular domain of LGR5 bind to PDCD5?
The N-terminal extracellular domain of Lgr5 could directly bind to PDCD5. Lgr5 induced p53 degradation by blocking the nuclear translocation of PDCD5 and leading to the loss of p53 stabilization.
What is the role of PITX1 in apoptosis?
As a transcriptional activator, PITX1 regulates apoptosis-related genes, including PDCD5, during gastric carcinogenesis. DKK-1 and PDCD5 can be independent predictors of overall survival in patients suffering from chondrosarcoma.