What is the difference between naphthenes and naphthalene?
Naphthenes are a class of cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. Naphthenic crude oil is more readily converted into gasoline than paraffin-rich crudes are. Note naphthenes are not the same as the chemical called naphthalene. Also Known As: Naphthenes are also known as cycloalkanes or cycloparaffin.
What are paraffins naphthenes and aromatics?
Paraffins – straight chain of saturated hydrocarbons. Isoparaffins – branched chain of saturated hydrocarbons. Aromatics – unsaturated hydrocarbons containing one or more benzene rings. Naphthenes – cyclic chain of saturated hydrocarbons.
What is aliphatic and aromatic?
Aliphatic compounds are those hydrocarbons that are the open chain compounds and also closed chains. Aromatic compounds are those who have only a closed chain structure. They are special classes of unsaturated hydrocarbon which is based on the six carbon moieties that is called benzene.
What is the Naphthene series?
Paraffins are the most common hydrocarbons in crude oil; certain liquid paraffins are the major constituents of gasoline (petrol) and are therefore highly valued. This series is an important part of all liquid refinery products, but it also forms most of the complex residues from the higher boiling-point ranges.
Are naphthenes paraffins?
Unlike olefins, which are straight-chain compounds, naphthenes are paraffins that have been “bent” into a ring or a cyclic shape. Naphthenes, like paraffins, are saturated compounds.
Is naphthalene banned in Australia?
The sale of naphthalene to the public in the form of mothballs is an unacceptable risk. Reports of poisonings in Australia continue and there are regular enquiries to state Poisons Information Centres regarding mothball exposure. Sale of naphthalene has been banned in the EU and New Zealand.
What are paraffins give two examples?
Paraffins are straight- or branched-chain hydrocarbons having the chemical formula CnH2n+2. The name of each member ends with –ane; examples are propane, isopentane, and normal heptane (Figure 3.1). They yield a fair amount of light gasoline (C5 and C6 molecules), though the octane of the gasoline is rather low.
What is the difference between aliphatic and aromatic aldehyde?
Aromatic aldehydes are organic molecules having an aromatic group attached to their functional group (–CHO). Aliphatic aldehydes are organic compounds that have no aromatic rings attached to the aldehyde group or anywhere in the compound.
What is API value?
The American Petroleum Institute gravity, or API gravity, is a measure of how heavy or light a petroleum liquid is compared to water: if its API gravity is greater than 10, it is lighter and floats on water; if less than 10, it is heavier and sinks. It is used to compare densities of petroleum liquids.
Are naphthenes saturated?
Naphthenes, also known as cycloalkanes, are saturated hydrocarbons that have at least one ring of carbon atoms. They have the general formula CnH2n. A common example is cyclohexane (C6H12). The boiling point and densities of naphthenes are higher than those of alkanes having the same number of carbon atoms.
How are naphthenes different from other hydrocarbon compounds?
The key difference between naphthenes and aromatics is that the naphthenes have only single bonds between carbon atoms whereas the aromatics have both single bonds and double bonds between carbon atoms. We call naphthenes “cycloalkanes”. These are cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds. We can obtain them from petroleum.
What are the different types of naphthene isomers?
Naphtha contains varying amounts of paraffins, olefins, naphthene constituents, and aromatics and olefins in different proportions in addition to potential isomers of paraffin that exist in naphtha boiling range. As a result, naphtha is divided predominantly into two main types: (i) aliphatic naphtha and (ii) aromatic (naphtha).
How are naphthenes, paraffins and olefins determined?
A method that uses supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with flame-ionization detection (FID) to determine naphthenes (cycloparaffins), paraffins, olefins, and aromatics in gasoline and JP-4 jet fuel is developed. Four packed silica columns in series are used to isolate the aromatics and provide ring number distribution.
Where do you get the formula for naphthenes?
Naphthenes are cyclic hydrocarbon compounds having the general formula C n H 2n. We can obtain these compounds from petroleum oil via refining. These compounds have one or more saturated ring structures. This means, all the carbon atoms in the ring structures are bonded to each other via only single bonds (no double bonds or triple bonds present).