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What is the pathophysiology of neonatal jaundice?

What is the pathophysiology of neonatal jaundice?

Pathogenesis of neonatal jaundice includes physiologic process of bilirubin accumulation or pathological mechanism. The pathological jaundice may be acquired or inherited. Acquired neonatal jaundice include Rh hemolytic disease, ABO incompatibility disease, and hemolytic disease due to G6PD enzyme deficiency.

What causes early onset jaundice?

RBC enzyme defects – G6PD, hereditary spherocytosis, alpha thalassemia. Haemorrhage – cerebral, intra-abdominal. Blood extravasation – (bruising/birth trauma)

What is the pathophysiology of jaundice?

Pathophysiology. Jaundice results from high levels of bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is the normal breakdown product from the catabolism of haem, and thus is formed from the destruction of red blood cells. Under normal circumstances, bilirubin undergoes conjugation within the liver, making it water-soluble.

What is physiological neonatal jaundice?

A newborn’s immature liver often can’t remove bilirubin quickly enough, causing an excess of bilirubin. Jaundice due to these normal newborn conditions is called physiologic jaundice, and it typically appears on the second or third day of life.

What is the management of neonatal jaundice?

Phototherapy. Phototherapy is treatment with a special type of light (not sunlight). It’s sometimes used to treat newborn jaundice by lowering the bilirubin levels in your baby’s blood through a process called photo-oxidation. Photo-oxidation adds oxygen to the bilirubin so it dissolves easily in water.

How is neonatal jaundice initially identified?

Yellowing of the skin and the whites of the eyes – the main sign of infant Jaundice – usually appears between the second and fourth day after birth. To check for infant jaundice, press gently on your baby’s forehead or nose. If the skin looks yellow where you pressed, it’s likely your baby has mild jaundice.

What are the effects of neonatal jaundice?

While jaundice is highly treatable, it can cause brain damage in infants if left untreated. Jaundice is a condition that causes your skin and the whites of your eyes to turn yellow. It’s most common in newborn babies.

What is the pathogenesis of neonatal jaundice?

Pathophysiology. Neonatal physiologic jaundice results from simultaneous occurrence of the following two phenomena [1] : Bilirubin production is elevated because of increased breakdown of fetal erythrocytes. This is the result of the shortened lifespan of fetal erythrocytes and the higher erythrocyte mass in neonates.

Why are some babies born with jaundice?

Infant jaundice occurs because the baby’s blood contains an excess of bilirubin (bil-ih-ROO-bin), a yellow pigment of red blood cells. Infant jaundice is a common condition, particularly in babies born before 38 weeks’ gestation (preterm babies) and some breast-fed babies.

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