How toxic is sodium fluoride?
Referring to a common salt of fluoride, sodium fluoride (NaF), the lethal dose for most adult humans is estimated at 5 to 10 g (which is equivalent to 32 to 64 mg elemental fluoride/kg body weight).
What is the health effect of excess fluoride in drinking water?
Ingestion of excess fluoride, most commonly in drinking-water, can cause fluorosis which affects the teeth and bones. Moderate amounts lead to dental effects, but long-term ingestion of large amounts can lead to potentially severe skeletal problems.
How much fluoride is safe to consume?
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a maximum amount of fluoride allowable in drinking water of 4.0 mg/L. Long-term exposure to levels higher than this can cause a condition called skeletal fluorosis, in which fluoride builds up in the bones.
What neutralizes sodium fluoride?
Neutralizing agents include sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate. Alcohols are sometimes used to precipitate the NaF: HF + NaOH → NaF + H2O.
Can fluoridated water cause stomach problems?
The results from the water fluoridation overfeed reports (concentrations of fluoride in the stomach between 20 and 250 mg/L) indicate that GI symptoms, such as nausea and vomiting, are common side effects from exposure to high concentrations of fluoride.
Why does toothpaste have sodium fluoride?
Sodium fluoride in toothpaste and mouthwash safely and effectively helps to prevent tooth decay, when formulated correctly and used as directed. Fluoride helps diminish demineralization of tooth enamel and enhances the remineralization of potential weak spots, strengthening the enamel.
What is the antidote for fluoride?
Boron as an Antidote to Fluoride Toxicity.
Why does fluoride make me sick?
Fluoride typically does not have any side effects. In most cases, it is a well-tolerated mineral, even when added to toothpaste and consumed in tablet form. Rarely, some individuals can experience nausea or diarrhea, while severe cases can involve weakness, tremors, seizures, etc. These symptoms are extremely rare.
What is the benefit of sodium fluoride?
SODIUM FLUORIDE (SOE dee um FLOOR ide) is a mineral that strengthens tooth enamel. It helps to prevent dental decay and is also used as a fluoride supplement.
How serious is fluoride toxicity?
Drinking water with levels of fluoride exceeding 2ppm should not be consumed, especially by children. Levels moderately higher than this may cause mild signs and symptoms of poisoning but levels exceeding 10 ppm can cause serious symptoms and even result in death.
What are the side effects of fluoride poisoning?
Fluoride should not be taken if the level in drinking water exceeds 0.7 parts per million, according to Drugs.com. Side effects from overdose of fluoride include increase in saliva, stomach pain, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle stiffness, skin rash, tremors and seizures.
Is calcium used as an antidote for fluoride poisoning?
The assimilation of ingested fluoride is drastically minimized by calcium ion in the gastrointestinal tract and calcium is thus the recognized antidote to fluoride poisoning. This would suggest that individuals with higher blood calcium would be more resistant to fluoride toxicity.
Is sodium fluoride poisonous?
Because sodium fluoride is poisonous when consumed in high doses, manufacturers often use it as a key ingredient in pesticides. Its binding properties also make it instrumental for developing preservatives, cleaning supplies, lotion, metal, adhesives, glass and wood-based products such as paper.