What is the structure of ceruloplasmin?
Ceruloplasmin is a copper-containing globulin that has a molecular weight of 151,000; the molecule consists of eight subunits, each containing one copper ion. Ceruloplasmin is the principal carrier of copper in organisms, although copper can also be transported by the iron-containing globulin transferrin.
What is ceruloplasmin and its function?
Ceruloplasmin is the major copper-carrying protein in the blood, and in addition plays a role in iron metabolism. It was first described in 1948. Another protein, hephaestin, is noted for its homology to ceruloplasmin, and also participates in iron and probably copper metabolism.
What is the function of Ferroxidase?
Ferroxidase also known as Fe(II):oxygen oxidoreductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidization of iron II to iron III: 4 Fe2+ + 4 H+ + O2 ⇔ 4 Fe3+ + 2H2O.
What is the nature of ceruloplasmin?
Ceruloplasmin, an α-2-glycoprotein that contains more than 95% of copper in plasma, not only acts as a copper transport protein but also a multicopper oxidase protein with six atoms of copper incorporated within it plays an important role in the mobilization and oxidation of iron into transferring (Osaki and Johnson.
What is ceruloplasmin test used for?
Ceruloplasmin testing is used primarily, along with blood and/or urine copper tests, to help diagnose Wilson disease, a rare inherited disorder associated with excess storage of copper in the eyes, liver, brain, and other organs, and with decreased levels of ceruloplasmin.
What is normal ceruloplasmin level?
The normal range for adults is 14 to 40 mg/dL (0.93 to 2.65 µmol/L). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or may test different samples.
What is the role of Apoferritin?
Apoferritin is a protein commonly present in the intestinal mucosa membrane. The important biological function of apoferritin is its ability to bind and store iron, by combining with a ferric hydroxide–phosphate compound to form ferritin.
What is the function of transferrin?
Transferrin is a blood-plasma glycoprotein, which plays a central role in iron metabolism and is responsible for ferric-ion delivery. Transferrin functions as the most critical ferric pool in the body. It transports iron through the blood to various tissues such as the liver, spleen, and bone marrow.
What if your ceruloplasmin is high?
Anything that interferes with the supply of copper or with the body’s ability to metabolize copper has the potential to affect blood ceruloplasmin and copper concentrations. Higher-than-normal ceruloplasmin levels could be a sign of a serious infection, heart disease, rheumatoid arthritis, leukemia or Hodgkin lymphoma.
How is ceruloplasmin measured?
Ceruloplasmin measurement is via a blood test, which often occurs by analyzing a serum sample with immunoassays, immunoturbidimetry, or immunonephelometry. The sample needs to be spun and separated as soon as the laboratory receives it and assayed promptly.
What is normal ferritin level for female?
Results. The normal range for blood ferritin is: For men, 24 to 336 micrograms per liter. For women, 11 to 307 micrograms per liter.
What is the function of the protein ceruloplasmin?
Ceruloplasmin metabolism and function Ceruloplasmin is a serum ferroxidase that contains greater than 95% of the copper found in plasma. This protein is a member of the multicopper oxidase family, an evolutionarily conserved group of proteins that utilize copper to couple substrate oxidation with the four-electron reduction of oxygen to …
Where does ceruloplasmin get its copper from?
Ceruloplasmin is an enzyme (EC 22.214.171.124) synthesized in the liver containing 6 atoms of copper in its structure. Ceruloplasmin carries more than 95% of the total copper in healthy human plasma. The rest is accounted for by macroglobulins.
What should the normal level of ceruloplasmin be?
Greater-than-normal ceruloplasmin levels may indicate or be noticed in: Normal blood concentration of ceruloplasmin in humans is 20–50 mg/dL. Reference ranges for blood tests, comparing blood content of ceruloplasmin (shown in gray) with other constituents.
How is ceruloplasmin related to transferrin in the plasma?
Ceruloplasmin exhibits a copper-dependent oxidase activity, which is associated with possible oxidation of Fe2+ (ferrous iron) into Fe3+ (ferric iron), therefore assisting in its transport in the plasma in association with transferrin, which can carry iron only in the ferric state.