What is glucuronidation reaction?
Glucuronidation is a conjugation reaction whereby glucuronic acid, derived from cofactor UDP-glucuronic acid, is covalently linked to a substrate containing a nucleophilic functional group. The resultant metabolite, called a glucuronide, is usually excreted in bile and urine.
What is UGT metabolism?
Uridine glucuronyl transferases (UGT) are a family of enzymes which play a major role in the metabolism of drugs. Glucuronidation involves the addition (or conjugation) of glucuronic acid either directly to the drug itself or to an oxidative metabolite of the drug.
What is Udpg in biochemistry?
A compound in which α-glucopyranose is esterified, at carbon atom 1, with the terminal phosphate group of uridine-5′-pyrophosphate (that is, uridine diphosphate, UDP). On very mild acid hydrolysis, glucose and UDP are liberated.
What is acetylation in drug metabolism?
Acetylation is a very common metabolic reaction which occurs with amino, hydroxyl or sulfhydryl groups. The acetyl group is transferred from acetyl-coenzyme A and the reaction is catalysed by acetyltransferases. In a few cases, the conjugates are further metabolized to toxic compounds, as is seen with isoniazid.
What is a UGT enzyme?
The UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) are enzymes that conjugate glucuronic acid to nucleophilic O, N, S, and C atoms on lipophilic compounds via a nucleophilic bimolecular (SN2) mechanism.
What is UTP in biochemistry?
Characteristics. Uridine triphosphate (UTP) is a nucleoside phosphate in being comprised of a ribonucleoside and three phosphate groups. This means that it has a ribose as its sugar constituent with three phosphate groups attached. Its nucleoside contains a pyrimidine base, i.e. uracil attached to the ribose sugar.
What enzyme do cats lack?
Cats lack the major phenol UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes, including UGT1A6 and UGT1A9, that glucuronidate acetaminophen and propofol.