What is the function of a stellate cell?
Stellate cells provide the liver with an ability to respond to injury and heal certain types of damage. However, repeated insults result in long lasting fibrosis, which impairs many aspects of hepatic function. In a normal, healthy liver, stellate cells are quiescent.
What type of cells are stellate cells?
Stellate cells are any neuron in the central nervous system that have a star-like shape formed by dendritic processes radiating from the cell body. Many Stellate cells are GABAergic and are located in the molecular layer of the cerebellum.
Why are hepatic stellate cells important in liver fibrosis?
Importantly, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in the initiation, progression, and regression of liver fibrosis by secreting fibrogenic factors that encourage portal fibrocytes, fibroblasts, and bone marrow-derived myofibroblasts to produce collagen and thereby propagate fibrosis.
What does stellate cells mean?
The stellate cell is the major cell type involved in liver fibrosis, which is the formation of scar tissue in response to liver damage.
What do stellate cells do in liver?
Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are pericytes residing in the perisinusoidal space, between sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatocytes, store vitamin A, and regulate sinusoidal circulation. Following chronic hepatitis, HSCs actively produce extracellular matrices and cause liver fibrosis.
Do stellate cells cause fibrosis?
Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in the fibrosis process, because in chronic liver damage, they transdifferentiate from a “quiescent” to an “activated” phenotype responsible for most the collagen deposition in liver tissue.
What is a stellate shape?
Stellate cells are any neuron in the central nervous system that have a star-like shape formed by dendritic processes radiating from the cell body. Many Stellate cells are GABAergic and are located in the molecular layer of the cerebellum. Stellate cells can be spiny or aspinous, while pyramidal cells are always spiny.
Where can you find stellate cells?
Hepatic stellate cells are liver-specific mesenchymal cells that play vital roles in liver physiology and fibrogenesis. They are located in the space of Disse and maintain close interactions with sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatic epithelial cells.
What kind of cell is the stellate cell?
The stellate cell is also known as the Ito cell, fat-storing cell, lipocyte, and perisinusoidal cell. Although it is a minor cell in the liver, constituting only 5% of the total hepatic cell numbers, it plays a central role in several toxin-induced hepatic lesions.
What are the role of stellate cells in the liver?
In a healthy liver, stellate cells are quiescent and contain numerous vitamin A lipid droplets, constituting the largest reservoir of vitamin A in the body (reviewed in ref. 1). When the liver is injured due to viral infection or hepatic toxins]
Where do Cerebellar stellate cells come from?
Cerebellar stellate cells are inhibitory and GABAergic. Stellate and basket cells originate from the cerebellar ventricular zone (CVZ) along with Purkinje cells and Bergmann glia Due to their similarity, basket and stellate cells are grouped together when examined during migration, especially given they follow the same pathway.
How are myofibroblasts and stellate cells related?
During injury, the behavior of stellate cells and hepatic myofibroblasts is regulated by paracrine interactions with damaged hepatocytes and endothelial cells; activated platelets, Kupffer cells, and infiltrating leukocytes; and other stellate cells and hepatic myofibroblasts.