What does SOX10 positive mean?
SOX10 (Sry-related HMg-Box gene 10) is a key nuclear transcription factor in the differentiation of neural crest progenitor cells to melanocytes. It has been shown to be a sensitive and specific marker of malignant melanoma of multiple histologic types.
Are schwannomas SOX10 positive?
In this study, benign nerve sheath tumors such as schwannomas, neurofibromas, granular cell tumors, and nerve sheath myxomas were strongly positive with rare exceptions.
What does SOX10 stain?
Sox10 also marks normal myoepithelial cells of salivary gland and bronchial and mammary ducts and lobules, and it stains the myoepithelial component of salivary gland neoplasms such as myoepithelioma or pleomorphic adenoma. Sox10 labels both benign melanocytes (nevus cells) and the vast majority of melanomas.
Is there a tumor marker for melanoma?
The serum markers currently available for melanoma have only limited clinical use. Those most widely used in clinical applications are S100-beta, melanoma inhibitory activity, and lactate dehydrogenase; there are close correlations between the serum concentrations of these and tumor load.
What is Pagetoid spread?
Pagetoid spread is defined as an individual cell proliferation in the upper levels of the epidermis, similar to the pattern of epidermal involvement by Paget’s disease of the breast.
What is the treatment for schwannoma?
Malignant schwannomas may be treated with immunotherapy and chemotherapy medications as well. If a schwannoma develops on a smaller nerve, it may not be possible to separate the tumor from the nerve. If a schwannoma is not completely removed, a slow-growing recurrence may be noted.
What is a Grade 1 schwannoma?
Schwannoma is a benign, slow-growing tumor that arises from Schwann cells, which normally wrap around motor and sensory nerves and provide a variety of supportive functions.
What is a melanoma marker?
Among the markers considered for use in the histological diagnosis of melanoma are Human Melanoma Black-45 (HMB-45), Melan-A, tyrosinase, microphthalmia transcription factor, and S100 as well as several newer ones (Tables 1 and 2).
What is the immunoreactivity of sox10-ae1-ae3 in sarcomas?
SOX10-AE1/AE3 expression in sarcomas. Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma showed (A) clusters of hyperchromatic epithelioid and pleomorphic cells (cell block; H&E stain, original magnification ×1000) with (B) no immunoreactivity for SOX10 or AE1/AE3 (SOX10-AE1/AE3 dual-color immunostain, original magnification ×1000).
What kind of immunoreactivity does clear cell sarcoma show?
Clear cell sarcoma shows immunoreactivity for microphthalmia transcription factor: further evidence for melanocytic differentiation. Mod Pathol 2001 Jan;14 (1):6-9.
Are there any cures for clear cell sarcoma?
They have rarely been shown to improve survival in clear cell sarcoma patients, possibly because of the relatively slow growth of this tumor type. Two FDA approved chemotherapies used in the management of soft tissue sarcomas are ifosfamide and doxorubicin.
Is the SOX10 / keratin IHC a sensitive test?
SOX10/keratin dual-color IHC appears to be an effective, sensitive, and specific test to distinguish between melanoma, sarcoma, and carcinoma.