## Which of the following is an advantage of small n designs according to Sidman 1960?

Which of the following is an advantage of small-n designs, according to Sidman (1960)? It is a predictive design as is the correlational design. An experimental design has one manipulated independent variable and one measured dependent variable. It is the only design that allows us to explain a casual relationship.

## When can we expect a large F ratio?

The F ratio is the ratio of two mean square values. If the null hypothesis is true, you expect F to have a value close to 1.0 most of the time. A large F ratio means that the variation among group means is more than you’d expect to see by chance.

**When using inferential statistics an effect is considered to be statistically significant if it has a less than % chance of being due to random error?**

More specifically results that have less than a 5% chance of being due to random error are typically considered statistically significant. When an effect is statistically significant it is appropriate to generalize the results from the sample to the population.

**Which of the following is an advantage of small-n designs quizlet?**

Small-N designs take advantage of unique cases. Small-N designs have better experimental control. Small-N designs generalize to larger groups of individuals. Small-N designs have fewer threats to internal validity.

### What are the 5 experimental designs used in ABA?

Repeated reversals.

### What is the best way to decrease the chance of a Type II error?

While it is impossible to completely avoid type 2 errors, it is possible to reduce the chance that they will occur by increasing your sample size. This means running an experiment for longer and gathering more data to help you make the correct decision with your test results.

**What happens when confidence interval is 0?**

Confidence interval tells you the actual coefficient value can lie within that range. If that interval includes 0, that means the actual coefficient value can be zero and that means that the predictor has no relationship with the response variable or it is insignificant in terms of its influence on response variable.

**What is disadvantage of Small and studies?**

Disadvantages of small N designs: Effects may be small relative to variability of situation so NEED more observation. Some effects are by definition between subjects.

#### What is one disadvantage of Small N studies quizlet?

Variables cannot be manipulated accurately in small-N studies, so there was a problem with construct validity. Traditional statistics cannot be used to analyze small-N studies, so there was a problem with statistical validity.

#### What does the between groups variance tell us?

The between groups variance is therefore telling us how much the means vary. When the means vary a lot, then S S B is larger. When the means do not vary, then S S B is small. The within-groups sum of squares is:

**How is ANOVA used to analyze group variance?**

The ANOVA method assesses the relative size of variance among group means (between group variance) compared to the average variance within groups (within group variance). Figure 1 shows two comparative cases which have similar ‘between group variances’ (the same distance among three group means) but have different ‘within group variances’.

**How to find the variance of a sample?**

Recall the formula for finding the variance of a sample. The numerator is referred to as the Sum of Squares. The term in the parentheses is “error”. This comes from treating the mean x ¯ as a “best guess”, which means that the difference between the observed value and the mean is how large our “error” in guessing is.

## Is it inappropriate to compare means of more than one group?

It is inappropriate because the repetition of the multiple tests may repeatedly add multiple chances of error, which may result in a larger α error level than the pre-set α level. When we try to compare means of three groups, A, B, and C, using the ttest, we need to implement 3 pairwise tests, i.e.,