What does CD57 positive mean?
The CD57 is expressed on both natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes. The CD57 test measures CD57 positive NK cells only. The test is performed on EDTA whole blood. In patients with low CD 57 counts, Lyme disease and Chlamydophila pneumoniae infections should be included in differential diagnosis.
Are NK cells CD7 positive?
To distinguish between CD4+CD56+ NK cells and other potentially contaminating cell types, such as monocytic or dendritic cells, we used CD7 as an additional NK cell–specific marker. CD7 is expressed on T cells, NK cells, and pre-B cells, but is absent on mature myeloid cells.
What is CD57 a marker for?
CD57 is a very useful marker of NK cell maturation, identifying cells with potent cytotoxic potential but decreased sensitivity to cytokines and reduced replicative potential.
What are absolute natural killer cells?
Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that are best known for their ability to mediate cytotoxicity and produce cytokines after the ligation of germline-encoded activation receptors.
Why is CD57 low in Lyme?
The basis for this test follows a study conducted in the 1980s which concluded that Lyme patients have abnormally low numbers of CD57 Natural Killer (NK) cells. CD57 NK cells are immune system attackers, not taggers such as the antibodies explained in the two-tiered test section.
What do natural killer T cells do?
NK cells are part of the innate immune system, as they effect rapid killing and cytokine responses without the need for extensive cell division or differentiation. By contrast, conventional T cells are, together with B cells, the prototypic cell types of adaptive immunity.
What is normal CD57 level in Lyme?
The standard normal range for the absolute CD57 NK count is 60 to 360 cells per microliter of blood. This wide range was established based upon test results of hundreds of healthy patients.
Why are CD57 + NK cells important for autoimmune disease?
Perhaps surprisingly, autoimmune disease is consistently associated with reduced frequencies or absolute numbers of circulating CD57 + NK cells and/or impaired NK cell cytotoxicity (Table 2) ( 70 – 78 ), suggesting that cytotoxic CD57 + NK cells may play a regulatory role, preventing or suppressing autoimmune disease.
What do you need to know about the CD57 test?
Clinicians need to be aware that many testing laboratories claiming to perform the CD57 test are actually looking at CD57+ T-cells rather than CD57+ NK cells, which are the cells of interest in chronic Lyme disease.
Why do I have low CD57 + NK count?
The CD57 blood test measures CD57+ NK counts. Although the reason is unknown, people who are infected with a chronic Lyme disease infection have low CD57+ NK counts. First the lymphocytes are counted for an absolute number.
Can a CD57 cell be a natural killer?
There have been instances where high amounts of CD57 natural killers cells have been found in those with chronic Lyme disease, and low amounts of CD57 natural killer cells have been found in those who were believed to be in remission. There are various stages of Lyme infection, and treatments differ according to the stage of infection.