Why do we test for endotoxin?
All injectable pharmaceutical products and implantable medical devices need to be tested to ensure there is no presence of endotoxin, which can lead to a pyrogenic response (fever) and symptoms of septic shock. Endotoxins can be detected in these products and devices through bacterial endotoxin testing (BET).
What is the function of a endotoxin?
Endotoxins are found in the outer membrane of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. They elicit a strong immune response in man (e.g., fever, septic shock), and cannot be removed from materials by normal sterilization processes.
How does an endotoxin test work?
Test procedure: A BET involves analyzing the liquid sample or sample extract using Limulus Amebocyte Lysate (LAL). LAL is a reagent made from the blood of the horseshoe crab. In the presence of bacterial endotoxins, the lysate reacts to form a clot or cause a color change depending on the technique.
Why is Lal testing important?
The LAL (limulus amebocyte lysate) testing, also known as bacterial endotoxin testing, is an in vitro assay used to detect the presence and concentration of bacterial endotoxins in drugs and biological products, and is an important part of pharmaceutical microbiology.
What is endotoxin give an example?
Although the term “endotoxin” is occasionally used to refer to any cell-associated bacterial toxin, in bacteriology it is properly reserved to refer to the lipopolysaccharide complex associated with the outer membrane of Gram-negative pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Pseudomonas, Neisseria.
What is the principle of bacterial endotoxin test?
Bacterial Endotoxin Test identifies the gel clot that is formed when an endotoxin contacts a clotting protein from circulating amoebocytes of the limulus. A preclotting enzyme is usually activated by the combination of endotoxins and calcium.
How is bacterial endotoxin calculated?
Think about it this way:
- If the dose is 1 mg/kg/hr, the endotoxin limit is (5 EU/kg/hr) ÷ (1 mg/kg/hr) = 5 EU/mg.
- If the dose is 10 mg/kg/hr, the endotoxin limit is (5 EU/kg/hr) ÷ (10 mg/kg/hr) = 0.5 EU/mg.
- If the dose is 100mg/kg/hr, the endotoxin limit is (5 EU/kg/hr) ÷ (100 mg/kg/hr) = 0.05 EU/mg.
How does bacterial endotoxin testing work?
Bacterial endotoxin testing involves the use of a spectrophotometer, which measures how much light is reflected off of — or absorbed by — an object. A doctor may suspect a patient has come into contact with a bacterial endotoxin if they have low blood pressure that is not responding to conventional treatments.
What do you know about endotoxin?
and Adult Susceptibility to Psychosocial Stressors and Depression.
What is bacterial endotoxin?
Bacterial Endotoxin Definition. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, Endotoxins are part of the outer membrane of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria.
What is the size of endotoxin?
Endotoxins are approximately 10 kDa in size, but readily form large aggregates up to 1,000 kDa. Bacteria shed endotoxin in large amounts upon cell death and when they are actively growing and dividing.