What does the word Gemeinschaft mean in German?
Gemeinschaft ( German pronunciation: [ɡəˈmaɪnʃaft]) and Gesellschaft ( [ɡəˈzɛlʃaft] ), generally translated as ” community and society “, are categories which were used by the German sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies in order to categorize social ties into two dichotomous sociological types which define each other.
What is the dichotomy between Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft?
Gemeinschaft–Gesellschaft dichotomy. In a review of Tönnies’ book in 1889, Durkheim interpreted Gemeinschaft as an organic community, and Gesellschaft as a mechanical one, reproaching Tönnies for considering the second type of social organisation artificial, and not seeing the transition from the one type to the other.
What was Emile Durkheim’s dichotomy with the Gemeinschaft?
Having put forward his conception of the Gemeinschaft – Gesellschaft dichotomy, Tönnies was drawn into a sharp polemic with Émile Durkheim.
What kind of philosophy does Japanese Zen have?
Japanese Zen Buddhist Philosophy. Zen aims at the perfection of personhood. To this end, sitting meditation called “za-zen” is employed as a foundational method of prāxis across the different schools of this Buddha-Way—which is not an ideology, but a way of living.
Where does the word Zen come from in Japanese?
The word Zen is derived from the Japanese pronunciation of the Middle Chinese word 禪 (dʑjen) (pinyin: Chán), which in turn is derived from the Sanskrit word dhyāna (ध्यान ),, which can be approximately translated as “absorption” or “meditative state”.
What do you call wandering thoughts in Zen?
Present concerns, worries, fears, and past memories often surface. Zen calls them “wandering thoughts,” which refers to any mental object that prevents the practitioner from concentrating. If one wants to make progress in meditation, this is one of the first things that the practitioner must learn to overcome.