What is the mechanism of action of isoniazid?
Mechanism of action — The antimicrobial activity of INH is selective for mycobacteria, likely due to its ability to inhibit mycolic acid synthesis, which interferes with cell wall synthesis, thereby producing a bactericidal effect .
Why isoniazid is effective in mycobacterial infection?
Isoniazid is a potent antimicrobial agent and one of the most commonly used antituberculosis medications. It inhibits lipid and DNA synthesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resulting in inhibition of cell wall synthesis and development.
How does isoniazid act on Tuberculi?
Mechanism of action Isoniazid is a prodrug that inhibits the formation of the mycobacterial cell wall. Isoniazid must be activated by KatG, a bacterial catalase-peroxidase enzyme in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
What is the mechanism of action of ethambutol?
Mechanism of action Ethambutol is bacteriostatic against actively growing TB bacilli. It works by obstructing the formation of cell wall. Mycolic acids attach to the 5′-hydroxyl groups of D-arabinose residues of arabinogalactan and form mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex in the cell wall.
How long should isoniazid be taken?
To help clear up your tuberculosis (TB) completely, it is very important that you keep taking this medicine for the full time of treatment, even if you begin to feel better after a few weeks. You may have to take it every day for as long as 6 months to 2 years. It is important that you do not miss any doses.
What are the mechanisms of action of isoniazid?
The pro-drug INH is activated by catalase-peroxidase (KatG), and the active INH products are targeted by enzymes namely, enoyl acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (InhA) and beta-ketoacyl ACP synthase (KasA). In contrast, INH is inactivated by arylamine N -acetyltransferases (NATs).
How is isoniazid used in the treatment of tuberculosis?
Isoniazid (INH) is one of the most active compounds used to treat tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. In addition, INH has been used as a prophylactic drug for individuals with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection to prevent reactivation of disease.
Is it true that Isoniazid can cause liver failure?
Isoniazid (INH) remains a mainstay for the treatment of tuberculosis despite the fact that it can cause liver failure.
What’s the half life of the drug isoniazid?
Isoniazid (INH) is a bactericidal drug that is well absorbed, minimally bound to plasma proteins, has a half-life of 1–3 hours depending on patient acetylator status and is excreted in urine. Jeffrey R. Starke, in Principles and Practice of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (Fourth Edition), 2012